Virus responsible for hepatitis in children?

Adenovirus infection is usually mild, but can cause symptoms such as cough, fever, ear infection, conjunctivitis or gastroenteritis, and, rarely, hepatitis. How is it sent? What is the treatment? answers d. Fabien Cuchert, pediatrician.

adenoviruses infect Especially young children. It mainly causes infections benignWith peaks epidemic in winter and spring. In an immunocompromised person, the infection can be severe. In infants, it may be responsible for bronchiolitis Based on Pneumonia. In April 2022, Mysterious outbreak of acute hepatitis It is observed in young children in Europe (including France) and the United States. In the face of this strange increase in cases, the World Health Organization published a report that advances adenovirus infection as a possible cause. Adenovirus (type 41) was identified in stool samples of nearly half of infected children. “Although adenovirus is currently assumed to be the underlying cause, it does not fully explain the severity of the clinical picture.refers to the organization. How do you get infected with adenovirus? what symptoms Does he train how Diagnosis ? How do Adenovirus infection treatment ? Insights from Dr. Fabien Cochert, pediatrician and president of the French Association of Ambulatory Pediatrics (AFPA).

Definition: What is adenovirus?

Adenovirus is virus Common but not talked about like influenza, bronchiolitis or COVID-19 for example, as much as Causes moderately mild infectionsDr. Fabian Kochert asks from the start, that viruses have a DNA or RNA genome, which puts them in two different categories.

glandular (which belongs to the family Adenoviridae) It is a DNA virus (without envelope, see chart below), i.e. her genome – All his genetic material – It is made up of DNA.

► Influenza virus or Covid virus are RNA viruses, that is, their genome is made up of RNA. Viruses possess RNA higher mutation rates of DNA viruses.

Schematic diagram of the structure of the adenovirus © Olga – stock.adobe.com / Women’s magazine

Adenovirus is transmitted by Direct contact or rarely by hand (By touching hands with a contaminated object or food) with nasopharyngeal secretions (Saliva, respiratory droplets…) or feces of an infected person.The pediatrician explains. Virus transmission is facilitated by Community life, indoor, poorly ventilated It occurs more easily in certain communities such as nurseries, schools, day care centers, barracks or swimming pools. As with all viruses, adenovirus infection can also be hospitalThat is, the contract was made during the stay in a health institution (hospital, clinic, etc.).

Adenovirus can be easily transmitted from one person to another.

Is adenovirus contagious?

Yeah. Adenovirus can be easily transmitted from one person to another through the air. In addition, adenoviruses are highly resistant in the environment and can persist for several weeks on surfaces. Therefore, their infection rate is high. It is transmitted between members of the same family (parents – children) frequently.

What is the incubation period for adenovirus?

The incubation period for adenovirus is from 2 to 14 days.

There is no clinical picture of adenovirus.

What are the symptoms that cause adenovirus?

As with all respiratory viruses, Symptoms are not very suggestive. There is no clinical picture of adenovirus. In immunocompetent patients as in adults (immunological competence is the body’s ability to produce a normal immune response, after exposure to an antigen), The infection may be completely asymptomatic. The medical signsWhen they are present, they are very diverse:

  • nasopharyngitis
  • angina
  • Bronchiolitis (in children)
  • ear infection
  • Cough
  • fever (moderate intensity)
  • Eye damage: conjunctivitis or Keratoconjunctivitis (corneal damage). “Keratoconjunctivitis is the most common sign of adenovirus infection, but it remains so raredefines our interlocutor.
  • digestive disorders (Inflammation of the stomach and intestines) with diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain.
  • hemorrhagic cystitis (rare)

In children and adults with immunodeficiency (Having had an organ transplant, for example), it could be an adenovirus infection More severe and scatteredwith possible damage to several organs:

  • Pneumonia
  • Meningitis
  • Lever Inflammationparticularly severe, and potentially exceptionally fatal

user, There is no indication that this virus is being researched accurately. With the covid pandemic, TRODs (Rapid Diagnostic Routing Tests) have become so widespread that it is possible to determine the type of virus in question in the event of an infectious picture (influenza, RSV, Covid, etc.)”, describes our interlocutor. As far as adenovirus is concerned, it can be identified by a PCR (molecular research) starting Respiratory secretions, blood sample, stool, urine…”If we are facing keratoconjunctivitis, we can do the PCR test on a sample of the conjunctiva for example. We can also look for antibodies like other viruses, but It has little diagnostic value Only retrospective diagnosis is allowed after recovery”, determines the pediatrician. PCR reports are only useful for people who are weak, immunocompromised, transplanted or who have a severe form of infection.

In the vast majority of cases, adenovirus infection resolves spontaneously.

What is the treatment for adenoviruses?

Treatment of symptoms in the first place Treatment of fever, cough, pain and diarrhea..and wait for it to heal. The longest recovery period is keratoconjunctivitis because the cornea takes a long time to heal”, indicates our interlocutor. In the vast majority of cases, adenovirus infection heals spontaneously. No antiviral is truly effective against adenoviruses. “For influenza, an antiviral drug is available (Tamiflu®) which can limit virus replication when given early enough, but nothing has been described for adenoviruses‘, specify.

Compliance with hygiene precautions is essential to prevent transmission of adenoviruses:

  • Wash hands regularly
  • wearing the mask For the sick or in the presence of vulnerable people
  • No close contact with an infected person
  • Disinfect potentially contaminated surfaces and objects because these viruses retain infection for a long time on surfaces.

Is there a vaccine against adenovirus?

The adenovirus vaccine should not be confused with the adenovirus vaccine, which refers to a specific protection technique.

There is no vaccine for adenovirus for the general population. The US military has developed an oral vaccine that is believed to be able to reduce cases of adenovirus infection, but it is not available. Only for military personnel. Please note, you should not Do not confuse adenovirus vaccine with adenovirus vaccines They are vaccines that use adenoviruses that are not pathogenic to humans as a viral vector to immunize the body against another infectious agent, for example Sars-CoV-2. In fact, adenoviruses (Make it harmless) in vaccination to elicit an immune response. It’s especially The principle of some Covid vaccines Such as Vaxzevria from AstraZeneca, Janssen vaccine from Johnson & Johnson, or Russian vaccine Sputnik V.

Thanks to Dr. Fabien Kochert, Pediatrician and President of the French Association of Ambulatory Pediatrics (AFPA)

Source: French Society of Microbiology

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